วิจัยเล่มที่ 1

Abandon us not in our old age: The origins of American Jewish residential services for the elderlyby Friedberg, Edna Sarah, Ph.D., The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 2007, 289 pages; AAT 3257358

Abstract (Summary) The old age home was the major American Jewish communal response to aged poverty during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A subject largely ignored by historians, this dissertation sheds light on both the practical application of Jewish philanthropic values and a self-conscious public projection of modernity and compassion. Through the establishment of prominent organizations like old age homes, Jews were staking a physical claim on the landscape of respectable American society.This dissertation explores the origins of residential services for the American Jewish elderly during the last three decades of the nineteenth century and the first four decades of the twentieth century. This timeframe spans the establishment of the first Jewish institutions for the aged in the United States to the creation of the federal Social Security program in 1935, which fundamentally changed the context of aging in America. This dissertation is the first full-length study to focus exclusively on institutional services for the American Jewish elderly in historical perspective. In particular, it closely examines the development of old age homes in urban Jewish communities, utilizing case studies of six representative facilities in Cincinnati, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. A work of both social and institutional history, this dissertation addresses a variety of topics, including the evolution of American Jewish philanthropy, intergenerational dynamics within an immigrant community, tensions among different waves of Jewish immigrants, questions of social class, and the professionalization of social work.The leaders of these homes framed their good works as part of a Jewish code of ethical behavior and called on their co-religionists to answer fundraising pleas on the basis of both compassion and spiritual duty. The history of the American Jewish old age home demonstrates the degree to which communal philanthropy can be a stand-in for religion, when charitable work done by and for a religious community is seen as an extension of faith.ที่มาhttp://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1317325841&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=73601&RQT=309&VName=PQD 

วิจัยที่ 2

Abstract (Summary) Corporate America is at the crossroad where ethical and unethical behaviors intersect. After decades of an eroding of regulations to prevent corporate and personal self-serving behavior, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was legislated. However, will prosecution act as a deterrent to prevent further illegal acts and unethical behavior? Empirical research must continue to understand the antecedents of ethical behavior in order to prevent further corruption in the workplace.Cognitive Moral Development theory states that cognitive ethical reasoning becomes more complex as one matures and gains cognitive processes. This theory assumes anyone with lower-order ethical reasoning is not able to process higher-order ethical reasoning. The theory is another indication that high ethical standards exhibited today do not guarantee the same standards tomorrow. Continuous education and training in what a company or profession considers high ethical standards are necessary to maintain and reinforce moral behavior. Such education and training emerge as even more important as the employee or member of the profession matures, so that his or her values are in alignment with the core ethical values of the company or the profession.Lawrence Kohlberg developed a system to represent logical ethical reasoning with a model of six stages. James Rest extended the work of Kohlberg by developing a valid, reliable instrument to quantitatively measure logical ethical reasoning. This instrument is called Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT). Using five ethical dilemmas that Rest created, the DIT determines how people use different processes when resolving a moral situation. Each survey participant rates the five moral dilemmas on a five-point-Likert-type scale. The person that makes moral decisions based on reasoning from ethical principles is at Kohlberg's highest stage, as determined by the DIT. Further, Rest developed a four-component model to describe the process most employees use when making ethical decisions. Rest's four-component process involves: moral sensitivity, identifying the correct course of moral action, determining what action to take when presented with an ethical dilemma, and the execution of the moral plan. Rest believed that moral failure could occur if a person lacked any of the four components.Kohlberg's and Rest's models are combined with a demographic survey to test the variables of education level, age, gender, and ethical training. Research has proven these variables have an impact on ethical decision-making when surveying a student population. However, these variables have not yet been applied to finance and accounting professionals.This research finds that the N2 score for the over 35 age group is significant: Subjects older than 35 years had a higher N2 score ( m = 25.66, sd = 5.66) than subjects 35 years old or younger ( m = 21.39, sd = 7.12). Although the variable for age was not significant, females scored higher for finance, and males scored higher for accounting.The relationship between the moral maturity level of finance and accounting professionals and the variable ethics courses and/or ethics training of finance professionals compared to accounting professionals was not supported through this analysis. The results are similar when the moral maturity level of finance and accounting professionals were surveyed on gender, age, and education.ที่มาhttp://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1324368901&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=73601&RQT=309&VName=PQD 

วิจัยที่ 3 

Abstract (Summary) This phenomenological study investigated the lived experience of acting ethically for top organizational leaders. The questioning of ethical behavior of top leaders has surfaced concerns regarding ethical leadership and trust in leaders in all types of organizations. However, little is known about how top leaders, who have a reputation for acting ethically, see themselves as acting in ethically challenging situations. In order to gain insight into this experience, eight top leaders from different organizational and social contexts engaged in in-depth conversational interviews to describe their experience of acting ethically. The criteria for selection of these leaders included their having been in a top leadership position for more than two years so that they had been challenged with ethical situations and their having a reputation (confirmed by two sources) for acting ethically. Through an analysis of the interview text, three essential themes emerged: (1) personifies espoused values; (2) builds relationships for harmony and purpose; and (3) works for mutually beneficial solutions. From the analysis of the essential themes, two models were constructed: the Ethical Leadership Values model that portrayed the top leaders' value system and the Ethical Action Leadership model that depicted six ethical leadership components and their interactions. Both the themes and the models provided clarity about values and behaviors important to acting ethically, and the importance of leaders living out their value system. The findings from the study provided insight into the ways top leaders saw themselves acting ethically, confirmed emerging research on ethical leadership, and supported the relevance of authentic and spiritual leadership concepts to top organizational leaders who lead and guide followers and work at solving ethically-challenging situations.ที่มา http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1303296381&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=73601&RQT=309&VName=PQD